词汇解析,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费

原标题:【国际】泰国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外花费

本期最初的作品选自The Economist 2017-0二-贰五的小说Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自巴黎高等师范高阶柒版、有道词典等能源。借使你也在读书The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist,一起念书调换。

翻译按:任何三个行业的革命都会碰到既有势力的拦截。读完本文,你将了然到卫生财富为啥不能够立时取代旧能源的多少个原因,以及恐怕的消除方案——政坛的出席和调节。
正文译自《法学人》二月214日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰跨国集团业主起草的新法律要求向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外国资本费。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经音讯澳大安拉阿巴德联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)评价》报导,泰王国发电局(EGAT)要求开发那笔支出作为区块链技术带来的机密影响的津贴。

【1】renewables 可再生财富

经济学人封面

近来,类似于图中的青广西开学同的大竹熊形状的太阳能发电类型已经很普遍了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive词汇解析,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费。 with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池清劲风涡轮机申明差不多150年后,他们照旧只发生世界7%的电力。不过,一些值得注意的作业正在产生。十几年前还处在财富系统的外围,它们以后的增速抢先任何其余财富,它们下跌的资金使其和化石燃料1样有竞争力
BP,一家柴油企业,猜想可再生能源将占未来20年全世界财富供应增进的一半。世界正在进入二个洁净,Infiniti和廉价电力的壹世不再是嫌疑的。也是光阴问题。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)不过,有几个20万亿加元的小问题。从今天到未来亟待在现在几10年大批量的投资,以代替旧的喷出谷雾的发电厂和升级换代给买主带来电的电缆塔和电缆。平时投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供保证的报恩。可是,桃红能源有1个污秽的隐衷。它配置得越来越多,它就会让来自别的来自的电力价格大跌越多。那使得通向无碳的未来的连片难以控制,在那里面,要是要让灯继续发光的话,许多发电技术,无论清洁照旧污染,供给保险盈利。除非市镇是一定的,否则对行业的补贴只会增加。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是一部有关气候变化和海内外变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的本来面目》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

三)政策制定者已经把这几个尴尬的真相看作停止可再生财富的叁个缘由。在欧洲和华夏的部分地区,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。不过,消除方案不是更少的风和太阳能。而是重新考虑世界什么为清洁财富定价,以便更好地使用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    肆)其主导难题是,政党协理的可再生财富已经被强加到三个不等时代设计出的商海。在20世纪的绝抢先十分之五时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的占据集团制作和平运动送的。从20世纪80年份开头,当中许多垄断被打破,被私有化和趋势,使集镇能力可以控制最棒投资方向。明天唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断公司取得他们的电力。不过,处处去碳电力供应的压力1度使得国家私行潜回市面。那是破坏性的,有多个原因。第二是补贴制度自作者。其余八个是风和阳光的性质固有的:它们的间歇性和它们非常的低的运维开支。那多少个原因扶助解释了为啥电力价格低和公共补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

5)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自二零一零年来说约为八千亿美元,扭曲了市场。它是出于尊贵的理由——为了对抗天气变化和鞭策提升新的、昂贵的技能,包罗风力涡轮机和太阳能电池板。不过,由于能源效能的不止压实和金融危机的熏陶,富裕国家的电力消耗因循守旧,补贴就在此时出现。结果造成过量的发电能力,大幅度缩减了电力服务公司从科学普及电力市镇获取的纯收入,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,土黄电源断断续续。风和太阳的变迁莫测——
尤其是在未有适合天气的国度——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在有的小时致电。为了保全电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电站,例如煤、汽油或核能,在可再生能源减弱起到功用。不过因为他们绵绵处于空闲气象,他们发现很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了保持灯亮着,他们要求国有资金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    7)每一种人都遭到第多个要素的震慑:可再生财富具有可忽略的要么是零边界运维本钱——因为风和太阳是免费的。在四个同情于以低于短时间资本生生产能力源的商海中,风能和太阳能从运转费用更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,降低电价,从而降低了全体人的纯收入。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

八)可再生财富的渗透率越高,那一个问题越严重——尤其是在饱满市集。在首先感受到影响的亚洲,电力服务企业遭遇了受益下落、资金财产搁浅和集团瓦解的“失去的10年”。2018年,德意志联邦共和国两大电力供应商E.ON和福睿斯WE两家都分拆成两家。在U.S.A.可再生财富充分的地带,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有大批量风力的地方,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有工作可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被重新调整,因为投资关键去往收益于国有支撑的园地。争执的是,那意味援助可再生能源的国度更多,他们为正规发电厂支付的也越来越多,来行使“容量支付”来缓解间歇性。实际上,政治家而不是市面再一次决定如何制止停电。他们不时犯错误:德意志对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量回涨,固然其对可再生财富提供巨大补贴。未有一种新的章程,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好消息是,新技巧能够协理缓解这一个标题。数字化,智能电衡量提示仪表和电池使集团和家中能够解决他俩的要求——例如在夜间做1些能源密集型的做事。这促进应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发发电站,简单利落调节产能,变得进一步受欢迎,高压电力网也足以更有效地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1壹)更大的天职是双重设计电力商场,以展现对灵活供应和须要的新供给。他们应当更频繁地调动价格,以显示天气的骚动。在极端稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起效果来阻拦停电。市集应该奖励愿意利用更少的电力的人来抵消电网,正如他们奖励那二个产生越多电力的人。账单能够被社团变成更高或更低,这取决客户多么显然地企盼一向保障电力供应——有点像保单。同理可得,政策制定者应该知道,他们不经常,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们理应化解它。

原稿出处:艺术学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于别的商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自己负责。本人同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的关照后,删除文章。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数目正在飞快扩充。那就是财富监管理委员会员会(E宝马X3C)需求制订对各种人都同等看待囚系的由来。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

更是多的泰王国集团应用分布式账本技术(DLT)援助房主从屋顶太阳能系统中赚取。新一代区块链消费者通过在疏散的点对点(p二p)能源市集上买卖剩余的太阳能电力财富,以致该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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2016年,中国负责了多于百分之四十的大地可再生财富,依据一项新的学习彰显,那是壹项满世界深紫红财富合成物的笔录。

换句话说,随着商场范围的恢弘,直接从国营公用事业公司购买的电力减弱,那象征古板电力行业的净利润缩小。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还吐弃了对非政坛太阳能发电的从严界定。据《斯德哥尔摩邮报》电视发表,泰王国政党同意家庭和合营社二零一八年10月将太阳电池板产生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但恐怕当初并从未料到p二p财富社区会如此高效地利用区块链技术吗。

【3】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际财富代理宗旨(IEA),一家在设置在法国首都的提问公司,发现可再生产资料源占新财富的百分之五十。有史以来第叁回,太阳能合成物发展的比包涵煤炭在内的别样燃料快。

英文原版的书文

【肆】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【伍】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

2018年,满世界太阳能体积拉长了2/四,在华夏负担了近乎的八分之四的能量增加的意况下跌成并超过7四千兆瓦。同时中夏族民共和国也是天下用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市场的决策者。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【陆】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的实践监护人Fatih
Birol估算在202二年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够增加10亿瓦特,只怕今后天下用煤量的2/四。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“我们正在见证1个新太阳能电板时代的诞生,“
Birol说,”大家预计在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比其余任何可再生产资料源技术进步的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的报告中,中华夏族民共和国被认为是世界上“毫无疑问的可再生产资料源的领导者“,在对环境污染和能量目的的焦虑下,可再生产资料源的付出被标明在中华第三三个伍年布署中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

亚洲必赢登录 ,来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说中华表示了天下太阳能板的须要量,中华夏族民共和国制作了天下百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

小编:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提出,由于市场的体量,中国政策的进化会对环球的太阳能须求,供应和价格产生震慑。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告诉中标明了炎黄的可再生财富的补贴和互连网集成的价位持续增高,会对今后的上进有神秘阻碍,并认为中夏族民共和国对可再生能源的策略相应依照这些阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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中原从停放电价项目发展到有浅黄证书的定额分配制。IEA认为这几个新的策略加上能量市镇的重新整理,新的电讯传输线,和分布式发电的加码会加快太阳能财富的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 发轫发生(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在内阁政策化解发展阻碍的状态下,IEA分析发未来202二年,中华夏族民共和国向导的全世界可再生财富的体积会在大增三成也正是一,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从整个世界的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的降低,对晋级新的可再生财富体量做出了孝敬。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【1四】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,英帝国政府举行了风力场的竞价会,两家店铺同意建立每小时发生57.50欧元(约合7陆比索)的百万Watt的设施。那些价位已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的50%。意味着在英国,海上风力发电第二遍比原子能发电要有利于。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【一五】solar panel太阳电池板

United Kingdom和华夏的钻研人士近期透露了五个新类型去商量“下四个时期“的风能和波浪能的科学技术。

【1六】hit产生不良影响,风险

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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英帝国的当然财富商量委员会和工程及自然科委会在将来三年会为那些项目出资肆百万英镑。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【17】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【1八】vagaries阪上走丸

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【1九】kick in发轫生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【二一】marginal
costs【会计学】边际资金(指因小额变动而招致总财力的相应变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【二3】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【二四】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,音信封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二陆】smart meter智能电衡量提示仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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